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Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

albert-einstein-colored-photoAlbert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor’s degree.

Albert Einstein lahir di Ulm, Württemberg, Jerman pada tanggal 14 Maret 1879. Enam minggu setelah Einstein lahir, keluarganya pindah ke kota Munich, dimana Einstein menempuh pendidikan dasar di kota ini tepatnya di sebuah sekolah bernama Luitpold Gymnasium. Tidak lama kemudian, keluarganya pindah ke Italia sementara Albert melanjutkan pendidikannya di kota Aarau, Swiss. Pada tahun 1896 beliau diterima sebagai mahasiswa di  Federal Polytechnic School di Zurich dimana pendidikan yang beliau tempuh mempersiapkan mahasiswanya untuk menjadi tenaga pengajar fisika dan matematika. Pada tahun 1901 beliau meraih gelar sarjana, dan di tahun yang sama menerima status kewarganegaraan Swiss. Selepas lulus, beliau tidak memperoleh posisi untuk mengajar, dan akhirnya beliau menerima pekerjaan sebagai asisten teknis di kantor paten Swiss. Pada tahun 1905 beliau meraih gelar doktor.

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

Saat bekerja di kantor hak paten dan di waktu senggangnya, beliau menghasilkan sebagian besar karya-karya penting dalam bidang fisika teori dan pada tahun 1908 beliau ditunjuk sebagai dosen di Berne. Pada tahun 1909 beliau menjadi dosen luar biasa di Zurich, dan pada tahun 1911 beliau mengajar sebagai profesor/guru besar fisika teoritis di Praha. Tahun berikutnya beliau kembali ke Zurich dan mengajar dalam posisi yang sama. Pada tahun 1914 beliau ditunjuk sebagai direktur Institut Fisika Kaiser Wilhelm (sekarang: Max Planck Institute) dan profesor di Universitas Berlin. Beliau menjadi warga negara Jerman pada tahun 1914 dan menetap di Berlin hingga tahun 1933 ketika pada tahun tersebut beliau melepaskan kewarganegaraan Jerman karena alasan politik dan kemudian berimigrasi ke Amerika Serikat dimana beliau menjadi profesor fisika teoritis di Universitas Princeton, New Jersey. Beliau menjadi warganegara Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1940 dan pada tahun 1945, beliau pensiun dari jabatannya di Universitas Princeton.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Setelah Perang Dunia II berakhir, Einstein dikenal luas sebagai tokoh utama pergerakan yang mendorong perubahan pemerintahan di berbagai belahan dunia. Beliau ditawari jabatan sebagai presiden Israel, namun beliau menolaknya. Bersama dengan Dr. Chaim Weizmann , beliau mendirikan Universitas Hebrew di Jerusalem.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.

Einstein terlihat selalu memiliki pandangan yang jelas terhadap berbagai persoalan fisika dan memiliki kemampuan yang luar biasa untuk menyelesaikan persoalan tersebut. Beliau memiliki strateginya sendiri dan mampu  memvisualisasikan tahapan-tahapan penting untuk memperoleh hasil yang diinginkan dalam memecahkan persoalan fisika. Pencapaiannya yang luar biasa dianggap sebagai batu pijakan yang sangat penting dalam mengembangkan ilmu fisika untuk mencapai tingkat yang lebih maju (advance).

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920’s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein’s researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy(1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920’s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East, and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein’s gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

Source: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html#footnote

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